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FAQ

Two kinds of glands are there: Endocrine & Exocrine. Exocrine glands produce certain substances/chemicals and then secrete it into the system via duct. Endocrine glands produce certain unique substances known as hormones and then secrete it directly into the blood. Many Endocrine glands (e.g. hypothalamus, pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, ovary, testes, etc.) are present in our body. All of them have different and unique function. They secrete various hormones having specific functions with wide implications throughout our body.
Hormones are the substances (also known as chemical messengers) which (after being released into the blood) affect distant organs and systems in the body and have wider range of functions. Endocrine glands secrete various hormones as per the requirement of our body and they try to maintain the blood level of these hormones in a particular range. If the level of any of these hormones is higher/lower than the requirement of our body, then this is known as hormonal imbalance. For example, thyroxin hormone is produced from the thyroid gland. So, if the level of thyroxin hormone is higher/lower than normal it is known as hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism, respectively.
Endocrinology is the science related to Endocrine glands, hormones & their disorders. An Endocrinologist is the super specialist doctor who deals with all kinds of hormonal disorders in adults as well as children. In India, it takes approximately 12 years of education in the medical college to become an Endocrinologist [MBBS (5.5 years), MD (3 years), DM (3 years)]. Endocrinologist has the final word while dealing with diabetes, thyroid & any other hormonal disorders.
Anterior pituitary gland:
(1) GH (Growth hormone): Growth of a child, Anabolic effects on bone/muscles/fat, regulates, carbohydrate, protein and fat metabloism
(2) Prolactin: lactation after delivery of a child
(3) TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone): T3 & T4 production from the thyroid gland
(4) FSH (Follicular stimulating hormone): Production of sperms from testes (in males) and growth of a follicle in ovaries (in females)
(5) LH (Luteinizing hormone): Production of testosterone from testes (in males) and ovulation from ovaries (in females)
(6) ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophin hormone): Release of Cortisol from the adrenal glands

Posterior pituitary gland:
(1) ADH (Anti diuretic hormone): Maintain Na and water balance in the body
(2) Oxytocin: Ejection of the milk from mammary glands

Hypothalamus:
(1) GHRH (GH releasing hormone): Release of GH from pituitary
(2) TRH (TSH releasing hormone): Release of TSH from the pituitary
(3) GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing hormone): Release of FSH & LH from the pituitary
(4) CRH (Corticotrophin releasing hormone): Release of ACTH from the pituitary gland
(5) Dopamine: Inhibits release of prolactin from the pituitary

Parathyroid gland:
(1) PTH (Parathyroid hormone): Maintain Calcium and phosphorous level in the blood, bone health

Thyroid gland:
(1) T3, T4 (Thyroxine): Affects metabolic rate, temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, bowel movements, sleep, mood and neurological (brain) development of the fetus/infant.
(2) Calcitonin: Maintains calcium level in the body, bone health

Pancreas:
(1) Insulin: Maintain Glucose level in the blood, supply glucose to muscles, anabolic effect
(2) Glucagon: Maintain glucose level in the blood during fasting,
(3) Somatstatin: wide range of functions throughout body (e.g. regulation of insulin, GH, glucagone secretion, etc.)

Adrenal:
(1) Cortisol: Stress hormone, regulates blood glucose, blood pressure, carbohydrate metabolism, fat metabolism, protein metabolism, anti-inflammatory response
(2) Aldosterone: Maintains Na and water balance, blood pressure
(3) DHEAS (Dihydroxyepiandrostenedione sulfate): Adrenarche (development of sparse genital hairs in child few years before puberty)

Testes:
(1) Testosterone: Sexual desire, erection, ejaculation, sperm production, genital hairs, hair over face (beard and mustache), Anabolic effect, bone health
(2) Inhibin B: Sperm production (fertility)

Ovary:
(1) Estradiol: secondary sexual characteristics (breast and uterus development), menstruation, bone fusion, bone health (reduces bone resoption), increase HDL, decrease LDL,
(2) Inhibin B: marker of ovarian reserve (fertility)
ExcessDeficient/resistant
GHAcromegaly/gigantismShort stature (dwarfism)
TSHHyperthyroidismHypothyroidism
FSH/LHMacroorchidism/infertility/early pubertyInfertility/delayed puberty
ProlactinInfertility/oligomenorrhea/sexual dysfunctionAbsence of lactation
ACTHCushing disease (ACTH dependent)Secondary adrenal insufficiency
ADHSIADH (hyponatremia)Polyuria, Diabetes insipidus (hypernatremia)
PTHHyperparathyroidism (hypercalcemia)Hypoparathyroidism/ Pseudohypoparathyroidism (hypocalcemia)
T3, T4HyperthyroidismHypothyroidism
InsulinInsulinoma (hypoglycemia)Diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia)
GlucagonGlucagonoma (hyperglycemia)-
CortisolCushing syndrome (ACTH independent)Primary adrenal insufficiency (addison disease)
AldosteronePrimary hyperaldosteronism (hypertension, hypokalemia)Hypotension, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia
TestosteroneHirsuitism/oligomenorrgea/infertility in females, short stature in male childHypogonadism/infertility/sexual dysfunction in males
EstradiolInfertility/hypogonadism/sexual dysfunction in malesAmenorrhea/sexual dysfunction/osteroporosis/dyslipidemia in females
  1. Diabetes mellitus: Type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, MODY (maturity onset diabetes of the young), neonatal diabetes, LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes of adults), other types of diabetes
  2. Thyroid disorders: Hypothyroidism (autoimmune, congenital, iodine deficiency, thyroiditis), hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease, toxic adenoma, toxic multinodular goiter, thyroiditis, iatrogenic), thyroid cancer (follicular, papillary, anaplastic, medullary, lymphoma), Goiter
  3. PCOD/PCOS (polycystic ovary disease/polycystic ovary syndrome)
  4. Hirsuitism (Excessive unwanted facial/body hairs in females)
  5. Obesity
  6. Metabolic syndrome
  7. Growth disorders (short stature): Syndromic, constitutional delay in growth & puberty, growth hormone deficiency, chronic illness/malabsoption, familial, idiopathic, etc.
  8. Growth disorders (tall stature): Syndromic, aromatase deficiency, gigantism, familial, etc.
  9. Puberty disorders (delayed puberty): Constitutional delay in growth & puberty, syndromic, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, chronic illness/malabsoption/hypothyroidism related, etc.
  10. Puberty disorders (early puberty): Hypothalamic hamartoma, idiopathic, neufibromatosis, isolated premature thelarche,
  11. Dyslipidemia: High cholesterol, high triglycerides
  12. Pituitary gland disorders (Acromegaly, gigantism cushing syndrome, prolactinoma, nonfunction pituitary adenoma, hypophysitis, pituitary carcinoma, pituitary metastasis, etc.)
  13. Adrenal gland disorders (adrenal adenoma, adrenal carcinoma, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital adrenal hypoplasia, primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease, congintal adrenal hyperplasia, congenital adrenal hypoplasia,), primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma (VHL syndrome, MEN2 syndrome, etc.),
  14. Parathyroid gland disorders: Hyperparathyroidism (hypercalcemia) hypoparathyroidism (hypocalcemia), parathyroid carcinoma, etc.
  15. Osteoporosis: steroid induced, post menopausal, hypogonadism related, osteogenesis imperfect, metabolic, etc.
  16. Metabolic bone disorders: Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, rickets, renal tubular acidosis, fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease, etc.
  17. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Insulinoma, glucagonoma, somatostatinoma, VIPoma, nonfunctional PNET, etc.
  18. Testicular disorders: Testicular tumours, testicular failure, low sperm counts, undescended testes, etc.
  19. Ovarian disorders: Premature ovarian failure, ovarian tumours, turner syndrome, PCOS/PCOD, etc.
  20. Menopause
  21. Sex hormone related disorders (low testosterone, etc.)
  22. Disorders of sexual development (DSD): 46 XX DSD, 46 XY DSD
  23. Transgenders & sex identity disorders (male to female, female to male)
  24. Other hormonal disorders